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Gaia Fee and Fees Checks

Fee Parameters

The CosmosHub allows managing fees using 4 parameters. At the network level, there are three parameters from globalfee modules (MinimumGasPricesParam, BypassMinFeeMsgTypes, and MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage) that can be set by gov proposal. Additionally, a fourth parameter which enables individual nodes to impose supplementary fee amount.

  1. global fees (MinimumGasPricesParam).\ global fees MinimumGasPricesParam is established at the network level through globalfee params set via Governance Proposal, it sets a fee requirements that the entire network must adhere to.

    Please note: in this context, "globalfee" or "Globalfee" are used to refer to the globalfee module, while "global fees" is referring to the MinimumGasPricesParam in the globalfee module's params.

  2. minimum-gas-prices in app.toml\ By adjusting the minimum-gas-prices parameter in app.toml, nodes can enforce a fee that is higher than the globally defined MinimumGasPricesParam. However, it's important to note that this configuration solely determines whether transactions are eligible to enter this specific node's mempool.

    Please note: in this context, minimum-gas-prices are used to refer to the local fee requirement that nodes can set in their app.toml, while MinimumGasPricesParam is a parameter in the globalfee module, which is the fee requirement at network level.

  3. BypassMinFeeMsgTypes and MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage.\ These two parameters are also part of the globalfee params from gaiad v11.0.0. They can be changed through Gov Proposals. BypassMinFeeMsgTypes represents a list of message types that will be excluded from paying any fees for inclusion in a block, MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage is the limit placed on gas usage for BypassMinFeeMsgTypes.

Globalfee module

The globalfee module has three parameters that can be set by governance proposal type param-change:

  • MinimumGasPricesParam
  • BypassMinFeeMsgTypes
  • MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage

Globalfee Params: MinimumGasPricesParam

Network level, global fees consist of a list of sdk.DecCoins. Every transaction must pay per unit of gas, at least, in one of the denominations (denoms) amounts in the list. This allows the globalfee module to impose a minimum transaction fee for all transactions for a network.

Requirements for the fees include:

  • fees have to be alphabetically sorted by denom
  • fees must have a non-negative amount, with a valid and unique denom (i.e. no duplicate denoms are allowed)

There are two exceptions from the global fees rules that allow zero fee transactions:

  1. Transactions that contain only message types that can bypass the minimum fee requirement and for which the total gas usage of these bypass messages does not exceed maxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage may have zero fees. We refer to this as bypass transactions.

  2. One of the entries in the global fees list has a zero amount, e.g., 0uatom, and the corresponding denom, e.g., uatom, is not present in minimum-gas-prices in app.toml, or node operators may set additional minimum-gas-prices in app.toml also zero coins.

Globalfee Params: BypassMinFeeMsgTypes and MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage

Bypass minimum fee messages are messages that are exempt from paying fees. The above global fees and the below local minimum-gas-prices checks do not apply for transactions that satisfy the following conditions:

  • Transaction contains only bypass message types defined in BypassMinFeeMsgTypes.
  • The total gas used is less than or equal to MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage.
  • In case of non-zero transaction fees, the denom has to be a subset of denoms defined in the global fees list.

Starting from gaiad v11.0.0, BypassMinFeeMsgTypes and MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage are part of global fee params and can be proposed at network level. The default values are: bypass-min-fee-msg-types=[ "/", "/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient", "/", "/" ] and default maxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage=1,000,000

From gaiad v11.0.0, nodes that have the bypass-min-fee-msg-types field in their app.toml configuration are not utilized. Therefore, node operators have the option to either leave the field in their configurations or remove it. Node inited by gaiad v11.0.0 or later does not have bypass-min-fee-msg-types field in the app.toml.

Before gaiad v11.0.0, bypass-min-fee-msg-types can be set by each node in app.toml, and the bypass messages gas usage on average should not exceed maxBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage=200,000.

  • Nodes created using Gaiad v7.0.2 - v10.0.x use ["/", "/","/ibc.applications.transfer.v1.MsgTransfer"] as defaults.
  • Nodes created using Gaiad v11.0.x or later use ["/", "/","/ibc.applications.transfer.v1.MsgTransfer", "/", "/"] as defaults.
  • Nodes with bypass-min-fee-msg-types = [] or missing this field in app.toml also use default bypass message types.
  • Nodes created using gaiad v7.0.1 and v7.0.0 do not have bypass-min-fee-msg-types configured in config/app.toml - they are also using same default values as in v7.0.2. The bypass-min-fee-msg-types config option can be added to config/app.toml before the [telemetry] field.

An example of bypass-min-fee-msg-types in app.toml before gaiad v11.0.0:

### Custom Gaia Configuration ###
# bypass-min-fee-msg-types defines custom message types the operator may set that
# will bypass minimum fee checks during CheckTx.
# Example:
# ["/", "/", ...]
bypass-min-fee-msg-types = ["/", "/","/ibc.applications.transfer.v1.MsgTransfer", "/", "/"]

Minimum-gas-prices (local fee requirement)

The minimum-gas-prices parameter enables node operators to set its minimum fee requirements, and it can be set in the config/app.toml file. Please note: if minimum-gas-prices is set to include zero coins, the zero coins are sanitized when SetMinGasPrices. When setting minimum-gas-prices, it's important to keep the following rules in mind:

  • The denoms in min-gas-prices that are not present in the global fees list are ignored.
  • The amounts in min-gas-prices that are lower than global fees MinimumGasPricesParam are ignored.
  • The amounts in min-gas-prices are considered as fee requirement only if they are greater than the amounts for the corresponding denoms in the global fees list.

Fee AnteHandler Behaviour

The denoms in the global fees list and the minimum-gas-prices param are merged and de-duplicated while keeping the higher amounts. Denoms that are only in the minimum-gas-prices param are discarded.

If the denoms of the transaction fees are a subset of the merged fees and at least one of the amounts of the transaction fees is greater than or equal to the corresponding required fees amount, the transaction can pass the fee check, otherwise an error will occur.


CLI queries can be used to retrieve the globalfee params:

gaiad q globalfee params

"minimum_gas_prices": [
"denom": "uatom",
"amount": "0.002000000000000000"
"bypass_min_fee_msg_types": [
"max_total_bypass_min_fee_msg_gas_usage": "2000000"

If the global fees MinimumGasPricesParam is not set, the query returns an empty global fees list: minimum_gas_prices: []. In this case the Cosmos Hub will use 0uatom as global fee in this case (the default fee denom).

Setting Up Globalfee Params via Gov Proposals

An example of setting up a global fee by a gov proposals is shown below.

gov submit-proposal param-change proposal.json

A proposal.json example to change the MinimumGasPricesParam in globalfee params:

"title": "Global fee Param Change",
"description": "Update global fee",
"changes": [
"subspace": "globalfee",
"key": "MinimumGasPricesParam",
"value": [{"denom":"stake", "amount":"0.002"}, {"denom":"uatom", "amount": "0.001"}]
"deposit": "1000stake"

Note: in the above "value" field, coins must sorted alphabetically by denom.

A proposal.json example to change the bypassMinFeeMsgTypes in globalfee params:

"title": "Globalfee Param Change",
"description": "Update globalfee Params",
"changes": [
"subspace": "Globalfee",
"key": "BypassMinFeeMsgTypes",
"value": ["/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgWithdrawDelegatorReward", "/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"]
"deposit": "1000000uatom"

A proposal.json example to change the maxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage in globalfee params:

"title": "Globalfee Param Change",
"description": "Update globalfee Params",
"changes": [
"subspace": "globalfee",
"key": "MaxTotalBypassMinFeeMsgGasUsage",
"value": 5000
"deposit": "1000000uatom"


Here are a few examples to clarify the relationship between global fees, minimum-gas-prices and transaction fees.

Note: Transactions can include zero-coin fees. However, these fees are removed from the transaction fees during the fee parsing / sanitizing before reaching the fee AnteHandler. This means paidfee = "1uatom, 0stake" and paidfee = "1uatom" are equivalent, and similarly, paidfee = "0uatom" is equivalent to paidfee = "". In the following examples, zero-coin fees are removed from the transaction fees, globalfee refers to MinimumGasPricesParam in globalfee params, minimum-gas-prices refers to the local minimum-gas-prices setup in app.toml.

Case 1

Setting: globalfee=[], minimum-gas-prices=0.1uatom, gas=2000000.

Note that this is the same case as globalfee=0uatom, minimum-gas-prices=0.1uatom, gas=2000000.

  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1uatom", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1uatom, 1stake", fail (unexpected denom)
  • paidfee = "", fail (insufficient funds)

Case 2

Setting: globalfee=[], minimum-gas-prices="", gas=2000000.

Note that this is the same case as globalfee=0uatom, minimum-gas-prices="", gas=2000000.

  • paidfee = "", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1uatom", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1stake", fail (unexpected denom)

Case 3

Setting: globalfee=[0.2uatom], minimum-gas-prices=0.1uatom, gas=2000000 (global fee is higher than min_as_price).

Note that this is the same case as globalfee=0.2uatom, minimum-gas-prices="", gas=2000000.

  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2uatom", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1uatom", fail (insufficient funds)
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2uatom, 1stake", fail (unexpected denom)
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2stake", fail (unexpected denom)
  • paidfee = "", fail (insufficient funds)

Case 4

Setting: globalfee=[0.1uatom], minimum-gas-prices=0.2uatom, gas=2000000 (global fee is lower than min_as_price).

Note that the required amount in globalfee is overwritten by the amount in minimum-gas-prices.

  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2uatom", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1uatom", fail (insufficient funds)
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2uatom, 1stake", fail (unexpected denom)
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2stake", fail (unexpected denom)
  • paidfee = "", fail (insufficient funds)
  • paidfee = 0uatom, fail (insufficient funds)

Case 5

Setting: globalfee=[0uatom, 1stake], minimum-gas-prices="", gas=200000.

  • paidfee ="2000000 * 0.5stake", fail (insufficient funds)
  • paidfee ="", pass
  • paidfee ="2000000 * 1uatom, 0.5stake", pass
  • paidfee ="2000000 * 1stake", pass

Case 6

Setting: globalfee=[0.1uatom, 1stake], minimum-gas-prices=0.2uatom, gas=200000.

Note that the required amount of uatom in globalfee is overwritten by the amount in minimum-gas-prices.

  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.2uatom", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.1uatom", fail (insufficient funds)
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 1stake", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 * 0.5stake", fail (insufficient funds)
  • paidfee = "2000000 0.1uatom, 2000000 1stake", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 0.2atom, 2000000 0.5stake", pass
  • paidfee = "2000000 0.1uatom, 2000000 0.5stake", fail (insufficient funds)

Case 7

Setting: globalfee=[0.1uatom], minimum-gas-prices=[0.2uatom, 1stake], gas=600,000,\ max-total-bypass-min-fee-msg-gas-usage=1,000,000,\ bypass-min-fee-msg-types = [\ "/",\ "/",\ "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient",\ "/",\ "/"\ ]

Note that the required amount of uatom in globalfee is overwritten by the amount in minimum-gas-prices. Also, the 1stake in minimum-gas-prices is ignored.

  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"] with paidfee="", pass
  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"] with paidfee="600000 * 0.05uatom", pass
  • msgs= ["/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgWithdrawDelegatorReward"] with paidfee="", fail
  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient", "/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgWithdrawDelegatorReward] with paidfee="", fail (transaction contains non-bypass messages)
  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient", "/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgWithdrawDelegatorReward] with paidfee="600000 * 0.2uatom", pass
  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"] with paidfee="600000 * 1stake", fail (unexpected denom)

Case 8

Setting: globalfee=[1uatom], minimum-gas-prices="0uatom", gas=1,100,000 or 200,\ max-total-bypass-min-fee-msg-gas-usage=1,000,000,\ bypass-min-fee-msg-types = [\ "/",\ "/",\ "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient",\ "/",\ "/"\ ]

  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"] with paidfee="" and gas=1,100,000, fail (gas limit exceeded for bypass transactions)
  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"] with paidfee="200 * 1uatom" and gas=200, fail (insufficient funds)
  • msgs=["/", "/ibc.core.client.v1.MsgUpdateClient"] with paidfee="1,100,000 * 1uatom", pass